The Impact of Symbiosis with Beneficial Microbes in Soil on Pistacia Vera

Document Type : Review Article


Pistachio Research Center, Horticultural Sciences Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Rafsanjan, Iran


The Impact of Symbiosis with Beneficial Microbes in Soil on Pistacia Vera

Najmeh Pakdaman (PhD)1*, Marieh Nadi (PhD)1, Amanollah Javanshah (PhD)1

1Pistachio Research Center, Horticulture Science Research Institute,

Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Rafsanjan, Iran


Received: 6 Oct. 2018    Accepted: 5 Dec. 2018


Introduction: Pistacia vera (pistachio) is a strategic crop in Iran. Some stressors, such as pathogen invasion, drought and salinity negatively affect pistachio growth and production. Chemical methods which have been employed for a long time, can be a serious threat to the environment and human health. Establishing appropriate symbiosis between pistachios and beneficial microorganisms of soil has recently attracted a lot of attention, which could replace chemical methods.


Results: Mycorrhizal fungi are among the most common symbionts of pistachios. These fungi increase the root surface for the uptake of water and some immobile elements, especially phosphorous. Trichoderma is a free-living fungus which can establish symbiosis with pistachios to protect them against different soil pathogens, apart from having some nutritional benefits. Some soil-borne bacteria can also provide symbiosis with pistachio roots as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. They improve plant growth by increasing the uptake of some elements, such as phosphorous, iron, and zinc, in addition to producing some phytohormones.


Conclusion: Screening and selecting the most suitable symbionts is a major step in providing useful symbiosis between pistachios and soil microorganisms. Co-inoculation with several compatible microbes could also be a good solution for benefiting plants and overcoming environmental stresses. However, it needs more investigations.


Please cite this article as follows:

Pakdaman N, Nadi M, Javanshah A. The impact of symbiosis with beneficial microbes in soil on Pistacia vera. Pistachio and Health Journal. 2019; 2 (1): 29-39.