Aflatoxin Contamination of Pistachio and the Problems and Strategies of Decontamination; A Review Study
Azam Mahroudi (MSc)1 , Hadi Eslami (PhD)2 , Marjan Mehrabpour (MSc)3, Maryam Dolatabadi (MSc)4*
1 Student Research Committee, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
2 Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, Occupational Safety and
Health Research Center, NICICO, World Safety Organization and
Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran
3 Department of Environmental Health, School of Health,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
4 Environmental Science and Technology Research Center, Department of Environmental Health Engineering,
School of Public Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran
Received: 11.09.2020 Accepted: 16.11.2020
It goes without saying that the most important problem of the country’ pistachio exports is the contamination of pistachios with Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin. The liver and kidney are the tissues targeted by aflatoxin that leads to carcinogenic effects. The contamination of pistachios with this toxin can threaten the main source of foreign exchange earnings, and prevent the producers from competing in the global market. In Iran and other pistachio-producing countries, contamination by Aspergillus species occurs during the growth phase as well as during or after the processing phases. As much as 2.5% of the world’s agricultural products are contaminated with mycotoxins. At present, the maximum allowed levels for aflatoxin B1 and total aflatoxin are 1-20 ng g-1 and 0-35 ng g-1, respectively. The Iranian Institute of Standard and Industrial Research has set the highest acceptable levels of aflatoxin B1 and total aflatoxin in pistachios at 5 and 15 ng g-1, respectively. Mechanical separation techniques, thermal inactivation, and irradiation are among the methods of decontamination and fungus control after pistachio harvesting. Ionizing radiation decontamination is a highly efficient, safe and environmental-friendly process that can be used for decontamination.
►Please cite this article as follows:
Mahroudi A, Eslami H, Mehrabpour M, Dolatabadi M. Aflatoxin contamination of pistachio and the problems and strategies of decontamination; A review study. Pistachio and Health Journal. 2020; 3 (4): 21-32.