Evaluation of the Effect of Neem Extract Formulation on Reducing Aflatoxin- Producing Fungi in Pistachio
Mahdi Khodaverdi (MSc)1, Rouhollah Karami-Osboo (PhD) 2*, Laleh Hosseinian (MSc) 2, Mansoureh Mirabolfathy (PhD) 2
1 School of Engineering, University of Boras, 50190 Boras, Sweden
2 Mycotoxins Research Laboratory, Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection, Tehran, Iran
Received: 09.08.2021 Accepted: 09.10.2021
Introduction: There is not sufficient information about the effect of neem extract on the growth, sporulation level, and production of aflatoxins by A. flavus. Therefore, the aim of this study was to further investigate the effect of neem seed extract on the production of aflatoxin AFB1 by A. flavus in culture medium and on pistachios infected with the fungus.
Materials and Methods : Neem seeds were collected from Bandar Abbas in Hormozgan province from August to October 2016. Consecutive ethyl acetate, water, and hexane methods were used to extract Azadirachtin from neem seeds. After drying, the powdered extract was formulated with Tween 20 and sunflower oil. To evaluate aflatoxin production, Potato dextrose broth (PDB) culture medium containing A. flavus (6 log CFU / ml) and 0.3 ml extract were prepared and placed in an incubator for 9 days.
Results :The results showed that the amount of fungal mycelium increased in the presence of ethyl acetate extract from neem seed, but the amount of aflatoxin B1 of this fungus decreased around 17% compared to the control sample (free of the formulated extract using the formulation of 1% of this extract).
Discussion: The effectiveness of the formulated extract is attributed to tetranortriterpenoid such as Azadirachtin A. The use of the obtained formulation showed that in addition to the previous properties reported about neem seed extract, which prevents the plants from Insect damage, it can reduce the damage caused by aflatoxin contamination in pistachio. The 1%formulated of this neem extract had no effect on fungal growth, but the most important difference between studies on neem extract and Azadirachtin extracted in this study is the reduction of aflatoxin production by fungi. In other studies, aqueous extract of neem producing aflatoxin was reduced significantly, while Azadirachtin purified in this study had little effect on reducing aflatoxins.
►Please cite this article as follows:
Khodaverdi M, Karami-Osboo R, Hosseinian L, Mirabolfathy M. Evaluation of the Effect of Neem Extract Formulation on Reducing Aflatoxin- Producing Fungi in Pistachio. Pistachio and Health Journal. 2021; 4 (3): 16-24.