Antifungal nanoparticles reduce aflatoxin contamination in pistachio

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Plant Pathology, Rafsanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rafsanjan, Iran

2 Department of Basic Science, Veterinary Medicine faculty, Tabriz University, Tabriz, Iran

3 Department of Plant Protection, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Rafsanjan, Iran

4 Department of Microbiology, Kerman Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kerman, Iran

5 Department of Horticulture, Rafsanjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rafsanjan, Iran

6 Department of Entomology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

7 Department of Toxicology & Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

8 Pharmaceutics Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran


Aflatoxins (AFs) are fungal subsidiary products that are predominantly generated by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus
parasiticus strains on cereals, nuts, dried fruits and dairy products under warm and humid conditions. Harmful fungi cause
spoilage in agricultural crops, and mycotoxins exert harmful effects on humans and livestock. Pistachios (Pistachio vera L) are
from among the most well-known nut trees extremely susceptible to contamination by aflatoxins and the major contributors to
dietary aflatoxins. Aflatoxins, in particular aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), are from among the most toxic natural compounds with
carcinogenic effects. Besides, exposure to aflatoxins results in several health-related conditions in humans, including acute and
chronic aflatoxicosis, immune suppression, liver cancer/cirrhosis, and stunting. Some traditional and novel control strategies
have been proposed for the elimination of AF prevalent in food crops. The application of nanoparticles is a newly advanced
method where they are used as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer agents. Nanoparticles are
most widely used for the molecular detection of pathogens at the early stages of the plant growth and for the control of
diseases. In this paper, the utilization and effects of nanomaterials on controlling aflatoxigenic fungi and their toxicity on
pistachio nuts have been studied.